Recommended Websites and Research
http://scoliosistreatment-schroth.com/ – This is the original Schroth website where you can find comprehensive information about the method, practitioners, and research support.
http://www.hss.edu/condition-list_scoliosis.asp – This site will provide you with information about scoliosis, available top scoliosis physicians in the United States that are affiliated with the Hospital for Special Surgery, links to articles, and options for treating scoliosis conservatively and surgically.
http://www.hss.edu/conditions_schroth-method-treatment-for-scoliosis.asp – Learn about the method and the exercises.
www.scoliosis.org - The website of the National Scoliosis Foundation, a non-profit organization whose mission is to provide information and build awareness of scoliosis and other spinal deformities.
www.scoliosisjournal.com – This is an online peer-reviewed and free access journal providing articles about the conservative treatment of scoliosis and other spinal deformities by American and international practitioners and researchers.
www.sosort.org/documents/scoliosislibrary.pdf – This site contains many of the most popular scoliosis articles used internationally.
www.sosort.net – This is the website of the International Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitative Treatment. SOSORT was founded in January 2004 by a group of physicians (from Europe and Asia) who are interested in studying the efficacy of various methods of conservative treatment. Dr. Manuel Rigo was SOSORT’s first president.
http://www.curvygirlsscoliosis.com/ - Curvy Girls is a network of peer-led support groups that reduce the emotional impact of scoliosis by empowering girls through mutual support and acceptance to become leaders, make healthy lifestyle choices, and improve self-esteem.
Lehnert-Schroth, Christa: Three-Dimensional Treatment for Scoliosis, The Martindale Press, Palo Alto, CA, 2007.Otman,S. et al: The efficacy of Schroths 3-dimensional exercise therapy in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in Turkey, Saudi Medical Journal Volume 26 (9)2005. Pmid:16155663
Rigo M, Grivas T, O’Brian J. RehabilitationSchools for Scoliosis, Thematic Series: Describing the Methods and Results. Scoliosis 2012;5:27.
Weiss HR, Maier-Hennes A. Specific Exercises in the Treatment of Scoliosis Differential Indication. Stud Health Technol Inform 2008;135:173-90.
Negrini S et al. Rehabilitation of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Results of Exercises and Bracing from a Series of Clinical Studies. Europa Medicophysica-SIMFER 2007 Award Winner. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2008;44(2):169-76.
Fusco C et al. Physical Exercises in the Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: an Updated Systematic Review. Physiother Theory Pract 2011;27(1):80-114.
Negrini S et al. Exercises Reduce the Progression Rate of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: results of a comprehensive systematic review of the literature. Disabil Rehabi, 2008;30(10):772-85.
Rigo M et al. Scoliosis Intensive Out-Patient Rehabilitation Based on Schroth Method. Stud Health Technol Inform 2008;135:208-27.
Weiss HR. The Schroth Scoliosis-Specific Back School—initial results of a prospective follow-up study. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 1995;133(2):114-7; discussion 118-9.
Weiss HR. Rehabilitation of Adolescent Patients with Scoliosis—What do we Know? A review of the literature. Pediatr Rehabil 2003;6(3-4):183-94.
Weiss HR. Conservative Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis with Physical Therapy and Orthoses. Orthopade 2003;32(2):146-56.
Rigo M. 3-D Treatment of Scolisois According to the Principles of C.L Schroth. Level 1 Certification Course Manuel. 2012.
Lehnert-Schroth C. Introduction to the Three-Dimensional Scoliosis Treatment According to schroth. Physiotherapy. 1992;78(11):10-815.
Weiss HR. “Best Practice” in Conservative Scoliosis Care. 3rd edition. 2010.
Negrini S et al. Specific Exercises Reduce Brace Prescription in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: a prospective controlled cohort study with worst-case analysis. J Rehabil Med 2008;40(6):451-5.
Weiss HR, Weiss G, Petermann F. Incidence of Curvature Progression in Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients Treated with Scoliosis In-patient Rehabilitation (SIR): an age- and sex-matched controlled study. Pediatr Rehabil 2003;6(1): 23-30.
Weiss HR, Bohr S. Conservative Scoliosis Treatment in Patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome. Stud Health Technol Inform 2008;140:314-7.
Weiss HR. The Effect of an Exercise Program on Vital Capacity and Rib Mobility in Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis. Spine (PhilaPa 1976) 1991;16(1):88-93.
Weiss HR. Influence of an In-patient Exercise Program on Scoliotic Curve. Ital J Orthop Traumatol 1992;18(3):395-406.
Weiss HR et al. Preliminary Results and Worst-case Analysis of Inpatient Scoliosis Rehabilitation. Pediatr Rehabil 1997;1(1):35-40.
Maruyama T et al. Conservative Treatment for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: can it reduce the incidence of surgical treatment? Pediatr Rehabil 2003;6(3-4):215-9.
Negrini S et al. End-growth Results of Bracing and Exercises for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Prospective worst-case analysis. Stud Health Technol Inform,2008;135:395-408.
Romano M. Negrini S. Manual Therapy as a Conservative Treatment for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: a systematic review. Scoliosis 2008;3:2.
Borysov M, Boryasov A. Scoliosis short-term rehabilitation (SSTR) according to ‘Best Practice’ standards – are the results repeatable?. Scoliosis 2012;7:1.
Vedat et al. Predictors of Flexibility and Pain Pattern in Thoracolumbar and Lumbar IS. Spine 2002(27);21:2346-2349.
Rigo DM, Villagrasa M, Gallo D. A specific Scoliosis Classification Correlating with Brace Treatment: description and reliability. Scoliosis 2010;5:1.
More Resources: Burwell, R.G.: Aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis: current concepts. Pediatric Rehabilitation, Volume 6: 137-170, 2003, No.3-4, July-Dec.
Dangerfield, P.H.: The classification of spinal deformities. Pediatric Rehabilitation, Volume 6: 133-136, 2003, No. 3-4, July-Dec.
Hawes, M.: The use of exercises in the treatment of scoliosis: an evidence based critical review of the literature. Pediatric Rehabilitation, Volume 6: 171-182, 2003, No.3-4. July-Dec.
Hawes, M: Scoliosis and the Human Spine, West Press, Tucson Arizona, U.S.A. 2003.
(available for purchase at the National Scoliosis Foundation, www.scoliosis.org)
Lehnert-Schroth, Christa: Christa: Three-Dimensional Treatment for Scoliosis, The Martindale Press, Palo Alto, CA, 2007
Negrini S., et al.: Physical exercises as a treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, a systematic review. Pediatric Rehabilitation, Volume 6: 227-235, 2003, No. 3-4, July-Dec.,
Otman,S. et al: The efficacy of Schroths 3-dimensional exercise therapy in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in Turkey, Saudi Medical Journal Volume 26 (9)2005. Pmid:16155663
Stokes, I.A.F. et al: Classification of Scoliosis Deformity in three Dimensional Spine Shape by Cluster AnalysisSpine (Phila 1976) 2009 Mar 15; 34(6)584-90. Pmid:192827371
Source: Weiss HR, Weiss G, Schaar HJ. “Incidence of surgery in conservatively treated patients with scoliosis.” Pediatric Rehabilitation 2003 Apr-Jun;6(2):111-118.
Weiss, H.R.: Rehabiliatation of adolescent patients with scoliosis-what do we know? A review of the literature. Pediatric Rehabilitation, Volume 6: 227-235, 2003, No. 3-4, July-Dec.
Weiss, H.R. Rigo, M, Fisioterapia para la Escoliosis, Basada en el diagnostico, Richard Pflaum Verlag GMBH and Co, Munich, Germany, 2004.
Zaina F, Negrini S et al. Sprecific exercises performed in the period of brace weaning can avoid loss of correction in Adolescent Idiopthic Scoliosis (AIS) patients.http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2672077
More Scientific Evidence
- Schreiber S, Parent EC, Hedden DM, Hill D, Moreau MJ, Lou E, Watkins EM, Southon SC. The effect of Schroth exercises added to the standard of care on the quality of life and muscle endurance in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis—an assessor and statistician blinded randomized controlled trial: “SOSORT 2015 Award Winner”. Scoliosis. 2015;10:24.
- Weiss H, Moramarco M, Moramarco K. Risks and long-term complications of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery vs. non-operative and natural history outcomes. Hard Tissue. 2013; 2(3): 27.
- Negrini S, Hresko TM, O’Brien JP, Price N, SOSORT Boards and SRS Non-Operative Committee SOSORT Boards and SRS Non-Operative Committee. Recommendations for research studies on treatment of idiopathic scoliosis: Consensus 2014 between SOSORT and SRS non–operative management committee. Scoliosis 2015;10:8.
- Romano M, Minozzi S, Bettany-Saltikov J, et al. Exercises for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Spine. 2013; 38(14).
- Monticone M, Ambrosini E, Cazzaniga D, Rocca B, ferrante S. Active self-correction and task-orientated exercises reduce spinal deformity and improve quality of life in subjects with mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Results of a randomized controlled trial. Eur Spine J. 2014;23(6):1204-14.
- Williams MA, Heine JP, Williamson EM, Toye F, Dritsaki M, Petrou S, Crossman R, Lall R, Barker KL, Fairbank J, Harding I, Gardner A, Slowther AM, Coulson N, Lamb SE. Active Treatment for Idiopathic Adolescent Scoliosis (ACTIvATeS): a feasibility study. Health Technology Assessment. 2015;19.55.
- Kuru T, Yeldan İ, Dereli EE, Özdinçler AR, Dikici F, Çolak İ. The efficacy of three-dimensional Schroth exercises in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A randomised controlled clinical trial. Clinil Rehabil. 2015.
- De Mauroy JC, Journe A, Gagaliano F, Lecante C, Barral F, Pourret S. The new lyon ART brace versus the historical Lyon brace: a prospective case series of 148 consecutive scoliosis with short time results after 1 year compared with a historical retrospective case series of 100 consecutive scoliosis; SOSORT award 2015 winner. Scoliosis. 2015;10:26.
- Negrini S, Aulisa AG, Aulisa L, Circo AB, Claude de Mauroy J, Durmala J, Grivas, TB, Knott P, Kotwicki T, Maruyama T, Minozzi S, O’Brien JP, Papadopoulos D, Rigo M, Rivard CH, Romano M, Wynne JH, Villagrasa M, Weiss HR, Zaina F. 2011 SOSORT guidelines: Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth. Scoliosis. 2012;7:3.
- De Mauroy JC. Email Interview. April 2015.
- Burwell RG, Dangerfield PH, Moulton A, Grivas TB, Cheng JCY. Whither the etiopathogenesis (and scoliogeny) of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? Incorporating presentations on scoliogeny at the 2012 IRSSD and SRS meetings. Active self-correction and task-orientated exercises reduce spinal deformity and improve quality of life in subjects with mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Results of a randomized controlled trial. Scoliosis. 2013;8:4.
- Stokes IAF, Burwell RG, Dangerfield PH.Biomechanical spinal growth modulation and progressive adolescent scoliosis – a test of the 'vicious cycle' pathogenetic hypothesis: Summary of an electronic focus group debate of the IBSE. Scoliosis. 2003;1:16.
- Weiss HR, The method of Katharina Schroth - history, principles and current development. Scoliosis. 2011;6:17.
- Lenhert-Schroth C. Three diamentional treatment of scoloisis. 2007.
- Rigo M, Reiter CH, Weiss HR. Effect of conservative management on the prevalence of surgery in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pediatric Rehabilitation. 2003; 6(3-4):209-214.
- Rigo M, Villagrasa M, Gallo D: A specific scoliosis classification correlating with brace treatment: description and reliability. Scoliosi.s 2010;5:1.
- Rigo, M., et al., Scoliosis intensive out-patient rehabilitation based on Schroth method. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2008;135:208-27.
- Weiss HR. Physical therapy intervention studies on idiopathic scoliosis: review with the focus on inclusion criteria. Scoliosis. 2012;7(4):1-11.
- Weiss HR, Goodall D. The treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) according to present evidence. A systematic review. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2008; 44(2):177-193.
- Weiss HR, Maier-Hennes H. Specific exercises in the treatment of scoliosis--differential indication. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2008;135:173-190.
- Weiss HR, Negrini S, Hawes, MC, Rigo M, Kotwicki T, Grivas TB, Maruyama T, and members of the SOSORT. Physical exercises in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis at risk of brace treatment – SOSORT consensus paper 2005. Scoliosis 2006;1:6.
- Weiss HR. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) - an indication for surgery? A systematic review of the literature. Disabil Rehabil. 2008;30(10):799-807.
- Weiss HR. Is there a body of evidence for the treatment of patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS)? Scoliosis. 2007; 2:12.
- Weiss, HR et al. Preliminary results and worst-case analysis of in patient scoliosis rehabilitation. Pediatr Rehabil. 1997;1(1):35-40.
- Weiss, HR, Weiss G, Schaar HJ. Conservative management in patients with scoliosis—does it reduce the incidence of surgery?. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;91:342-7.
- Weiss, HR, Weiss G, Schaar HJ. Incidence of surgery in conservatively treated patients with scoliosis. Pediatr Rehabil. 2003;6(2):111-8.
- Weiss, HR. Influence of an in-patient exercise program on scoliotic curve. Ital J Orthop Traumatol. 1992;18(3):395-406.
- Weiss, HR. The effect of an exercise program on vital capacity and rib mobility in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 1991;16(1):88-93.
- Weiss, HR. The Schroth scoliosis-specific back school—initial results of a prospective follow-up study. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 1995;133(2):114-7.
- Jelačić M, Villagrasa M, Pou E, Quera-Salvá G, Rigo M. Barcelona Scoliosis Physical Therapy School – BSPTS – based on classical Schroth principles: short term effects on back asymmetry in idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis. 2012;7(Suppl 1):057.
- Otman SN, Kose N, Yakut Y. The efficacy of Schroth s 3-dimensional exercise therapy in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in Turkey. Saudi Med J. 2005; 26(9):1429-35.
- Romano M, Negrini A, Parzini S, Tavernaro M, Zaina F, Donzelli S, Negrini S. SEAS (Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis): a modern and effective evidence based approach to physiotherapic specific scoliosis exercises. Scoliosis. 2015;10:3.
- Negrini S, Fusco C, Minozzi S, Atanasio S, Zaina F, Romano M. Exercises reduce the progression rate of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Results of a comprehensive systematic review of the literature. Disability and Rehabilitation 2008;30(10):772-785.
- Zaina F, Negrini S, Atanasio S, Fusco C, Romano M, Negrini A. Specific exercises performed in the period of brace weaning can avoid loss of correction in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) patients: Winner of SOSORT’s 2008 Award for Best Clinical Paper. Scoliosis. 2009;4:8.
- Negrini S, Minozzi S, Romano M. Braces for idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents. Spine. 2010:35(13):1285-93.
- Dobosiewicz K, Durmala J, Czernicki K, Jendrzejek H. Pathomechanic basics of conservative treatment of progressive idiopathic scoliosis according to Dobosiewicz method based upon radiologic evaluation. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;91:336-41.
- Rigo M, Weiss HR: The Chêneau concept of bracing- Biomechanical aspects. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 2008;135:303-319.
- Lunes DH, Cecilio MB, Dozza MA, Almeida PA. Quantitative photogrammetric analysis of the Klapp method for treating scoliosis. Rev Bras Fisioter, São Carlos. 2010;14(2):133-4.0
- Durmala J, Dobosiewicz K, Kotwicki T, Jendrzejek H. Influence of asymmetric mobilization of the trunk on the Cobb angle and rotation in idiopathic scoliosis in children and adolescents. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil. 2003;5(1):80-5.
- Durmala J, Dobosiewicz K, Jendrzejek H, Pius W. Exercise efficiency of girls with idiopathic scoliosis based on the ventilator anaerobic threshold. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;91:357-60.
- Fabian, KM, Rożek-Piechura K. Exercise tolerance and selected motor skills in young females with idiopathic scoliosis treated with different physiotherapeutic methods. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil. 2014;16(5):507-22.
- Wnuk J, Frackiewicz J, Durmala J, Czernicki K, Wadolowski K. Short-term effects of combination of several physiotherapy methods on the respiratory function – a case report of idiopathic adolescent scoliosis. Stud Health Technol Inform .2012; 176:402-6.
- Durmala J, Kotwicki T, Piotrowski J. Stabilization of progressive thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using brace treatment and DoboMed physiotherapy. Scoliosis. 2009;4(Suppl 2):O29.
- Dobosiewicz K, Durmala J, Czernicki K, Piotrowski J. Radiological results of Dobosiewicz method of three-dimensional treatment of progressive idiopathic scoliosis. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2006;123:267-72.
- Durmala J, Dobosiewicz K, Czernicki K. A retrospective analysis (October 1999 – September 2004) of the effects of conservative treatment of in-patients with progressive scoliosis in the Department of Rehabilitation in Katowice, Poland. Ann Acad Med Siles. 2007; 61(1):1-3.
- Dobosiewicz K, Durmala J, Jendrzejek H, Czernicki K. Influence of method of asymmetric trunk mobilization on shaping of a physiological thoracic kyphosis in children and youth suffering from progressive idiopathic scoliosis. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;91:348-51.
- Mehta MH: Active Correction by Side-Shift: An alternative treatment for early idiopathic scoliosis. In: Scoliosis prevention. Praeger, New York. 1985: 126 -140.
- Betts T. The development of a classification system for the treatment of scoliosis by the side shift. Scoliosis. 2014;9(Suppl 1):O66.
- Betts T. The development of a decision making pathway for the physiotherapy treatment of adult scoliosis. Scoliosis. 2014; 9(Suppl 1):O47.
- Maruyama T, Takeshita K, Kitagawa T, Nakao Y. Side shift exercise and hitch exercise. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;91:361-364.
- Maruyama, T et al. Conservative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: can it reduce the incidence of surgical treatment?. Pediatr Rehabil. 2003.6(3-4):215-9.
- Białek M, M'hango A. FITS concept - functional individual therapy of scoliosis. studies in health technology and informatics. the conservative scoliosis treatment. 1st SOSORT instructional course lectures book. IOS. 2008;135: 250-261.
- Białek M. Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis according to FITS concept: presentation of the method and preliminary, short term radiological and clinical results based on SOSORT and SRS criteria. Scoliosis. 2011;28;6(1):25.
- Białek M., M'hango A. complex diagnostic and therapy of spinal curvatures and scoliosis according to fits concept. Dysfunctions of the locomotor system. University of Medical Sciences 1/2010. Poznań 2011.
- Czaprowski D, Stoliński Ł, Stolińska E, Białek M, Szczygieł A. Effect of intensive physiotherapy carried out according to FITS concept to change the angle of trunk rotation in children with idiopathic scoliosis. Advances in Rehabilitation I International Congress PTR I PTF T. XXII, Warszawa 2009: 123-124.
- Białek M, Chwała W, M'hango A. Evaluation symmetry of functional biopotentials in back muscle action on the basis of EMG (percutaneous) in double scoliosis undergoing intensive, 2-weeks intensive individual FITS therapy. Fizjoterapia Polska, Medsportpress, Warszawa, Volume 5, Number 2, 2005.
- Białek M. Kotwicki T, M'hango A, Szulc A. The value of the angle of trunk rotation within the primary and compensatory scoliosis in children with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing intensive, individual physiotherapy according FITS Method. Annales Academiae Medicae Silesiensis , T.6, Nr 1/2007.
- Białek M, Brzęk A, Białek E. FITS therapy impact on the value of the angle of trunk rotation in girls diagnosed with double idiopathic scoliosis. Fizjoterapia: diagnosis and therapy in the management of people with different needs. Red.: R.Plinta, M. Kosińska, L. Niebrój, Eukrasja, Vol.17, Katowice 2013.
- Białek M. Mild Angle Early Onset Idiopathic Scoliosis Children Avoid Progression Under FITS Method (Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis), Medicine. 2015;94(20):e863.